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technology guidE

sony cmos image sensors for 
consumer applications

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DOL-HDR: Digital Overlap High Dynamic Range

In the DOL-HDR technology, an image processing technology for subjects with high contrasts. It synthesizes different exposure conditions into an image so that both bright and dark data can be seen at the same time. Therefore, brilliant colors are captured even when pictures are taken against bright light for both video imaging and still imaging.

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SLVS-EC: Scalable Low Voltage Signaling Embedded Clock

SLVS-EC is an interface technology suitable for high speed output / multi stream output. By using this technology, it's possible to realize the folowing new application worlds.

High speed output

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Multi stream output

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PDAF: Phase Detection Auto Focus

PDAF is the high speed auto focus technology. This technoloy has the following merits compared with a conventional one (contrast AF).

Phase detection auto focus

PDAF

Conventional

Contrast AF search

PDAF provides amazing quick and accurante focusing by every frame detection.

Useful Case 1: Focusing to fast moving object

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Useful Case 2: Focusing in case of rapid scene change between near and far

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Stack CMOS Image Sensor

Back-illuminated and stacked structure provide advanced functionality

Stacked CMOS image sensor is a Sony's CMOS image sensor that adopts a unique 'stacked structure'. This structure layers the pixel section, containing formations of back-illuminated pixels over the chip affixed with mounted circuits for signal processing, in place of conventional supporting substrates used for back-illuminated CMOS image sensors.

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Conventional CMOS image sensors mount the pixel section and analog logic circuit on top of the same chip, which require numerous constraints when wishing to mount the large scale circuit such as measures to counter the circuit scale and chip size, measures to supress noise caused by the layout of the pixel and circuit sections, and optimizing the characteristics of pixels and circuit transitors. Sony has succeeded in establishing a structure that layers the pixel section containing formations of back-illuminated structure piexels over the chip affixed with mounted circuits for signal processing, whihch is in place of supporting substrates used for conventional back-illuminated CMOS image sensors. By this stacked structure, large scale circuits can now be mounted keeping small chip size. Furthermore, as the pixel section and circuit section are formed as independent chips, a manufacturing process can be adopted, enabling the pixel section to be specialized for higher image quality while the circuit section can be specialized for higher functionality, thus simultaneously achieving higher image quality, superior functionality and a more compact size. In addition, faster ginal processing and lower power consumption can also be achieved through the use of leading process for the chip containing the circuits.

Back-illuminated CMOS Image Sensor

Condition: 1 Ix F1.4 (QXGA image 60 frame/s)

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Existing [Internal gain 42 dB/ADC 10 bit mode]

Back-illuminated [Internal gain 51 dB/ADC 12 bit mode]

Back-illuminated structure provides higher sensitivity

Sony's back-illuminated CMOS image sensor improves sensitivity and noise reduction - the key factors to enhancing image quality, while radically realigning their fundamental pixel structure from front-illumination to back-illumination. It has retained the advantages of CMOS image sensors such as low power consumption and high speed operation.

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Front-illuminated structure

Back-illuminated structure

With a conventional front-illumination structure, the metal wiring and transistors on the surface of the silicon substrate that form the sensor's light sensitive area (photo-diode) impede photon gathering carried out by the on-chip lens, and this has also been an important issue in the miniaturization of pixels and widening optical angle response.

A back-illuminated structure minimizes the degradation of sensitivity to optical angle response, while also increasing the amount of light that enters each pixel due to the lack of obstacles such as metal wiring and transistors that have been moved to the reverse of the silicon substrate.

However, compared to conventional front-illuminated structures, back-illuminated structures commonly causes problems such as noise, dark current, defective pixels and color mixture that lead to image degradation and also cause a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio. To overcome this, Sony has newly developed a unique photo-diode structure and on-chip lens optimized for back-illuminated structures, that achieves a higher sensitivity and a lower random noise without light by reducing noise, dark current and defect pixels compared to the conventional front-illuminated structure. Additionnally, Sony's advanced technologies such as high precision alignment have adressed any color mixture problems.

CMOS Image Sensor with Column-parallel A/D Conversion Circuit

Faster than the Human eye

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Higher Speed with Column-parallel A/D Conversion and Reducing Noise

The key to increased speed of Sony's CMOS image sensor can be found in parallel signal processing. CMOS sensors hae analog digital (A/D) conversion circuits that convert analog pixel signals into digital signals. Speed is increased by arranging thousands of these circuits in a horizontal array and allowing them to operate simultaneously. The A/D conversion circuits used in Sony's CMOS sensors have important characteristics, including the reduced size of the analog circuits in which noise is created, and automatic noise cancellation. This circuit design enables noise reduction to be combined with enhanced speed.

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